Economics Of Water And Energy Technology

Table 1 is a summary of present and future (2020-2030) costs/status for different energy resources and energy technologies, and a comparative current cost of different power technologies is given in Table 2.

Table 1  Summary of results of Thematic panel on Energy Technology

Energy Resource/Technology Present 2020-2030
1. Oil prices (US$/barrel) 10.1 10-20
2. Electricity:
Production cost (US cents/KWh):
Consumer cost (US cents/KWh):
 
6
8-10
 
3
5-6
3. Hydropower Retain market share,
Price 3-6 US cents/KWh
Potential to retrofit existing dams
4. Desalination:
Average cost seawater (US$/m3):
New installations seawater(US$/m3):
New installations brackish(US$/m3):
 
1.5-3.0
1.0
0.5
 
 
0.25-0.50
0.15-0.25
5. Solar pumping (US$/m3) 0.40-060 0.08-010
6. Subsidies on energy for water pumping   Trend down, but not abolished

Source: World water vision, 1999,  Paris "Report of the Thematic panel on Energy Technology and its implications on Water Resources"

Table 2 Comparison of current costs of power technologies

Power Technology Installation Costs   (US$/kW) O&M Costs   (UScents/kWh) Electricity Generation Costs (UScents/kWh)
Hydro 600-2,000 - 2-8
Wind 800-1,000 0.05-0.1 5-7
Solar - Photovoltaic (Modules, Crystalline Si) 3,700
3,900-4,500
- -
Solar - Photovoltaic (Modules, Thin film amorphous Si) 2,600
3,000-5,000
- -
Solar - Photovoltaic (Modules, Thin film CdTe, year 2000) 2,000 - -
Solar - Photovoltaic (Modules, Thin film CIS, year 2000) 2,000 - -
Solar - Photovoltaic(BOS) 4,300 - -
Solar - Photovoltaic(system) 6,000-8,000
11,000-14,000
0 50-75
Solar - Thermal/parabolic Trough, 80 MW 2,800-3,500 - 12-17
Biomass - Direct Combustion 2,500 - 14
Biomass - Bio-crude combustion 1,500 - 8
Biomass - Advanced Technologies 400-2,500 - 6-10
Geothermal - Hydrothermal (Steam-dominated) 1,600-1,700 - 4-6,2-8
Geothermal - Hydrothermal (Water-dominated) 2,400-2,500 - 6,2-8
Geothermal - Geopresssured (Steam) - - 11
Geothermal - Hot Dry Rock - - 4-19
Ocean - Tidal Barrage (8.6 GW, study) 1,800 8
Ocean (OTEC, estimate) 10,000 1 12-25
Nuclear (1,000 MW) 2,100-2,300 2-4
Gas - Combined Cycle 450-650 0.35 3-4
Coal - PFBC (100 MW) 1,200 5.4
Coal - Steam ( 2 x 500 MW, with flue gas treatment, LEC) 1,200-1,500 1.5-2.0 5-10

Source: 1998, ABB Environmental Affairs - Renewable Energy - Hydro, Wind, Solar, Biomass, Geothermal, Ocean - Status and Prospects.

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