Renewable Energy Systems And Desalination

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A Short Historical Review of Renewable Energy

E. Delyannis1 and A. El-Nashar2

The renewable energies in the antiquity

The power of the sun

The development of solar distillation

The solar driven desalination

The energy of the mother gaia

The power of aeolos

The power of the moving waters

The impulsive power of poseidon

Renewable Energy Resources

V. Belessiotis and E. Delyannis

The sun as an energy source

The geothermal energy

The hydraulic energy

Wind energy resources

Biomass as an energy source

Thermal energy from biomass

The Ocean Systems Energy Resources

Desalination with Renewable Energy - A Review

Ali M. El-Nashar

Commercial Desalination Processes and Their Energy Consumption

Available Renewable Energy Sources

Devices for Transforming Renewable Energy into Useful Energy for Desalination

Coupling of Desalination Processes and Renewable Energy

Current Status

Selection Criteria among Different RE Desalination Technologies

Performance of Selected RE Desalination Projects

Economics of RE Desalination

Renewable Energy and Desalination Systems

Asghar Husain

What is Sustainability?

Review of Desalination Technologies

Desalination using Solar Energy

Desalination using other Renewable Energies

Why use Renewable Energy for Desalination

Ali M. El-Nashar

The need of desalination for economic development in the remote arid areas

The need of energy for desalination

The availability of renewable energy

The economic and social benefits of using renewable energy for desalination

Examples of arid remote regions where renewable energy for desalination can have a high economic potential

Thermal Energy Storage

Hassan E. S. Fath

Sensible Heat Storage

Latent Heat (Phase Change) Storage

Combined Sensible and Latent Heat Storage

Some Recent Developments

Electrical Energy Storage

J. Garche and A. Jossen

Systems with Internal Storage

Systems with External Storage

Storage Sizing

Tidal Energy

B. Sørensen

Resources

Technology

Economic Aspects

Environmental Consideration

Prospect

Desalination Using Tidal Energy

Abdalla S. Hanafi

Tides

Tidal Power Plants

Tidal Desalination Technologies

Economic Comparisons with Wind and Solar Energy

Wave Energy

B. Sørensen

Resources

Technology

Economic Aspects

Environmental Consideration

Prospect

Wind Energy

B. Sorensen

Worldwide distribution of wind energy resources

Wind turbine technology

Economic, Social and Environmental impacts of Wind energy utilization

Evaluation of greenhouse warming mitigation potential of wind power

Availability of Wind Energy and its Estimation

Richard Morris

The Sun as the wind driver

The Nature of wind

Wind power statistics

Estimating Wind Power

Siting for Wind Energy

The Use of Geothermal Energy in Desalination

B.W. Tleimat

A.D.K. Laird

Historical perspective

Heat transfer from geothermal reservoirs

Geothermal energy utilization

Electricity generation

Water production from geothermal sources

Idealized liquid-dominated reservoirs

Water and power generation: effects of some system parameters

Multiple-effect and multistage distillation processes Energy-budget management

Processes for decentralized desalination

Water-budget management

Solids-budget management

Solar Radiation Energy (Fundamentals)

L. Wald

Introduction

Energy Emitted by the Sun

Sun-Earth Geometry - Time

Sun Geometry Perceived by an Observer - Radiation at the Top of the Atmosphere

Concepts of Scattering and Absorption - Terrestrial Radiation

Radiative Transfer in the Atmosphere - Spectral Distribution of the Radiation

Radiative Components at Ground Level

High Temperature Solar Concentrators

Robert Pitz-Paal

Introduction

Theoretical Background

Concentration of Radiation

Conversion of Radiation to Heat

Conversion of Heat to Electricity

Technical Concepts

Parabolic Dishes

Central Receiver Systems

Solar Furnaces

Medium Temperature Solar Concentrators (Parabolic-Troughs Collectors)

E. Zarza

Introduction

Parabolic-trough collectors: working principle and components

Optical, thermal and geometrical losses in a parabolic-trough collector

Energy flow and thermal energy delivered by a parabolic-trough collector

Design of solar fields with parabolic-trough collectors

Different ways to couple a parabolic-trough solar field with an industrial process

The Direct Steam Generation Technology

Thermal energy storage systems for parabolic-trough collectors

Electricity generation with parabolic-trough collectors

Low Temperature Solar Collectors

Soteris A. Kalogirou

Introduction

Low Temperature Solar Collectors

Thermal Analysis of Collectors

Performance of Solar Collectors

Solar Collector Applications

Solar Photovoltaic Energy Conversion

G. Schumm

The General Photovoltaic System

Non-concentrating PV systems

Tracking and Concentrating PV system

Photovoltaic

A. Luque and I. Tobías

Introduction

What we see today

History

Photovoltaic generation

The solar resources

Photovoltaic applications

Technology

The future of PV

Flat-Plate Collectors

V.G. Belessiotis

Solar Collector aoolication

Definitions

Main Collector Components

Characteristics of Flat-Plate Collectors

Dynamic characteristicsof a collector

The thermal characteristics of a collector

Shading of the Collectors

Basic calculation methods

The heat transfer loss coefficients

Large Active Solar System: Load

V.G. Belessiotis

Estimation of thermal load

Integration of solar Pond with Water Desalination

U. Fisher, J. Weinberg and B. Doron

Historical Background

The solar Pond

Desalination process coupled to the solar pond

Large Active Solar Systems: Typical Economic Analysis

V.G. Belessiotis

Cost of solar hot water systems

Cost of conventional hot water system

Effect of inflation

Rate of interest

Method of Life cycle cost

Methodology

Present worth factor

Comparison Methodology

Evacuated Tube Collectors

Ali M. El-Nashar

Current Designs of Evacuated Tube Collectors

Thermal Analysis

Analysis of Flat Plate Evacuated Tube Collector

Analysis of Concentric-Tube Collector

Performance of Evacuated Tube Collectors

Case Study (Collector Field at the Abu Dhabi Solar Desalination Plant)

Parabolic Trough Collectors

Wolfgang Meinecke

History of Trough development

State of the Art of trough applications

Trough Technologies

Prospects and Potential

Cost and economic aspects

Central Receivers

M.M. Elsayed

Heliostates: types and design shapes

Heliostat angles

Heliostat field: heliostat layout

Heliostat field: cosine effect

Heliostat field: preliminary sizing of the field

Heliostat field: usefulness efficiency

Reflected solar radiation

The effective sunshape

Principal images and relation between receiver and image planes

Models to predict the solar flux density distribution on the image plane

Solar flux density distribution on the receiver surface using the separation of variables/ superposition technique

Receivers: types and losses

Preliminary sizing of the receiver

Overall system optimization

Configuration, Theoretical Analysis and Performance of Simple Solar Stills

A. Kumar

Configuration of Simple Solar Stills

Theoretical Analysis of Simple Solar Stills

Performance of Solar stills

Development in Simple Solar Stills

Hassan E.S. Fath

Modified simple (passive) stills

Externally heated (active) stills

Other types of solar distillation systems

Multi-Effect Solar Stills

H.E.S. Fath

Why Multi Effect?

Double Effect Basin Stills

Multi Effect Multi Wick Stills

Multi Effect Diffusion Stills

Other Distillation Systems

Materials For Construction of Solar Stills

T.A. Lawand and J. Ayoub

General specifications of solar stills

Transparent cover

Evaporator liner

Solar still frame

Sealants

Insulation

Auxiliaries (piping, pumping and reservoirs)

Reverse Osmosis by Solar Energy

W. Bucher

Basic Parameters and energy demand for Osmosis

Solar Power conversion Systems

Reverse Osmosis system Configuration and Operation Aspects

Solar Powered desalination units

Costs

Solar Distillation

Gopal Nath Tiwari and Hriday Narayan Singh

Importance of Water

Water Pollution and its Effects

Principles of Solar Distillation: A State-of-the-Art

Classification of Solar Distillation Systems

Heat and Mass Transfer in Solar Distillation

Performance of Solar Still

Solar Photochemistry

Julián Blanco Gálvez and Sixto Malato Rodríguez

Solar Chemistry

Artificial Solar Photochemical Processes

Biological Photosynthetic Processes

Photochemical Synthetic Applications

Solar Photocatalytic Processes to Water Contaminants Treatment

Gas Phase Photocatalytic Treatment Processes

Pilot Scale Solar Photochemical Facilities

Photochemical Conversion of Solar Energy

S. Malato Rodríguez, J. Blanco Gálvez

Photochemistry Principles

The Solar Spectrum

Evaluation of Solar Photo Flux inside Photoreactors

Simplified Methods for Comparing Experiments when Working with Solar Radiation

Availability of Solar Radiation and its Estimation

V.G. Belessiotis

The sun and the radiation emitted

The extraterrestrial radiation

The co-ordinate systems: The basic solar angles

Computation of insolation at the earth' surface

Application of solar radiation

The impact of solar energy to the environment

Economics of Small Solar-Assisted Multiple-Effect Seawater Distillation Plants

Ali M. El-Nashar

System Configurations

Design and Sizing Considerations

Economic Ground Rules and Water Cost Optimization

Results

A Solar-Assisted Sea water Multiple Effect Distillation Plant 15 Years Operating Performance

Ali M. El-Nashar

Basic Design Concept of Solar desalination

Performance During Commissioning tests

Performance History

Major Maintenance Activities

Evaluation of Water Cost

Mathematical Simulation of a Solar Desalination Plant

Ali M. El-Nashar

System description

System operating conditions

Mathematical Modeling of system components

Simulation Program

Mathematical Models of Solar Energy Conversion systems

Viorel Badescu

Introduction

Properties of Radiation Fluxes

Concentration of Solar Radiation

Photothermal Conversion

Photovoltaic Conversion

Photochemical Conversion

Multiple Effect Distillation of Seawater Water Using Solar Energy - The Case of Abu Dhabi Solar Desalination Plant

Ali M. El-Nashar

Introduction

History of Abu Dhabi Solar Desalination Plant

Description of Abu Dhabi Solar Desalination Plant

Measurements and Data Acquisition System

Data Analysis

Weather Condition in Abu Dhabi

Operating Characteristics

Plant Maintenance and Modifications

Simulation Program and its Validation

Evaluation of the Test Plant

Economic Considerations and Comparison with Conventional MED Plants

Results of the Economic Study

Solar Irradiation Fundamentals

Zekâi Şen

The Sun

Atmospheric effects and Electro-magnetic Radiation (EMR) spectrum

Astronomic effects

Meteorological effects

Topographic effects

Solar parameters

Solar radiation modeling

Astronomic calculations

Solar-Hydrogen Energy

Water Desalination by Humidification and Dehumidification of Air, Seawater Greenhouse Process

Karim Bourouni, Mohamed Thameur Chaibi and Ali Al Taee

Desalination Process by Humidification and Dehumidification

Seawater Greenhouse Process (SWGH): Principles and Fundamentals

Design of SWGH

Overview on the installed SWGH projects: Case Studies