Thermal Desalination Processes

Desware Contents | Sample Chapters

MSF Engineering

M.A. Darwish

Process Description

Once-through MSF Systems

Recirculation Multistage Flash (MSF) System

Performance Ratio

Heat Transfer Area of the Stages Condenser

Flow Sheet Development

Maintenance Design Features

Component Design and Material

Rational Basis for Energy Comparison

Cost Estimation

MSF Steam Supply to an MSF Desalting Plant from Cogeneration Turbine

Reference Dual-purpose Power/Desalination Plant

Science and Technology of Chemical Dosing for Desalination: History, Development and Future Trends

E.Bryan and R.E. Talbot



Overview of Dosing Systems

Acid Dosing Systems

Threshold Scale Control Additives

Sulphite Dosing Systems



Ferrous Sulphate


Future trends

Control Scheme of Multistage Flash Plants

T. Knohl, A. Gambier and H. Unbehauen

Principles of MSF Desalination

Defining the System for Control

An Overview of Control Strategies for MSF Plants

On-line Optimization of MSF Desalination Plants

A. Mhamdi, W. Geffers, F. Flehmig and W. Marquardt

Steady-State MSF model

Steady-State detection

Data reconciliation and gross error detection

Optimization of Operating Conditions

Implementation of real-time Optimization

The Need for Multivariable Control in MSF Desalination Plants

Joachim Blum and Wolfgang Marquardt

Controllability Analysis

Robust Control

Process Optimization - Cost Criteria

O.J. Morin

Process Design and Cost Criteria

Energy Supply Alternatives

Process Optimization

Steady-State Model

Asghar Husain

Literature Review

Stage Model

Interstage Model

Brine Heater Model

Splitter Equations

Auxiliary Equations

Model Solution

Steady-State Simulation

Asghar Husain

Process Constraints

Performance Simulation

Results & Discussion

Process optimization

Asghar Husain

Setpoint variables

Technical criteria for Optimization

Dynamic Model

Asghar Husain and K.V. Reddy

Literature Review

Brine Heater Model

Stage Model

Interstage Flow

Control Loops

Pipeline Networks

Dynamic Simulation

Dynamic Modelling and Simulation: Modeling Concepts and Model overview

F. Flehmig, R.V. Watzdorf and W. Marquardt

Modelling Concepts

MSF Plant Model Overview

Dynamic Modeling and Simulation: Brine flow hydraulics

F. Flehmig, R.V. Watzdorf, W. Marquardt and K.V. Reddy

Experimental Data

Mathematical Description

Illustrative Examples

Dynamic Modeling and Simulation: Non-equilibrium Effects and Heat transfer

F. Flehmig, R.V. Watzdorf and W. Marquardt

Non-equilibrium effects

Heat transfer

Dynamic Modeling and Simulation: Model Validation and Simulation Studies

F. Flehmig, R. Von Watzdorf and W. Marquardt

Model Description

Dynamic Plant experiment

Model Validation


Asghar Husain

Training Simulator

Simulator for an MSF Plant

Cost Aspects - MSF

O.J. Morin


Reference Design

Site-specific Factors

Cost Development Factors

Cost Calculation Methods

Introduction and Definitions

J.D. Birkett

Basic Principles

Developments since 1950

Multi-Effect Distillation (MED)

Raphael Semiat

Desalination Techniques

MED Design Issues

Design Equations

Operational Issues

Environmental, Energy Issues and Future Trends

Future Trends

Fundamentals of Multiple Effect Evaporation

M.A. Darwish

Single effect submerged tube system

Multi effect boiling of submerged tube desalination system

Modern multi-effect boiling desalination with regenerative heating system

Mechanical Driven Compressor

Thermally driven compressor

Vertical Tube Evaporators

R.P. Hammond and H.H. Sephton

Feed Heating and Feed Control

Upflow Vs downflow

Fluted tubes for vertical evaporators

Scale control and use of surfactants

Steam Path design of Vertical Tube bundle

Plant layout and arrangement

Process control and Instrumentation

Operating Experience with vertical tube evaporators

Case studies

Horizontal Tube Multiple Effect - Stacked Design

R. Rautenbach and J. Widua

Hydraulic Design

Heat Transfer

Case Studies

Mechanical Vapor Compression Distillation

B. Tleimat

Process description

Process analysis

Effects of salinity and temperature on energy consumption

System heat balance

Heat transfer surface requirement

Effects of evaporator temperature on heat transfer area

Effects of evaporator type on energy

Multieffect vapor compression distillation

Comparison of single effect and multieffect vcd systems

Forced circulation vapor compression


Modeling, Dynamics and Control of Horizontal Tube Falling Film Multieffect Desalination Plants

J. Hackenberg, A. Helbig and W. Marquardt

Dynamic Modeling of ME Distillers

Dynamics and Controllability Analysis

Decentralized Control

Model Predictive Control

Freezing Desalination Process

Z. Lu and L. Xu

Desalination Freezing Process

Basic Component In Freezing Process

Indirect Freezing Process

Direct Freezing Process

Comments on Freezing Process

Future Prospects

Design of Multiple effect Forced-circulation Evaporators & Crystallization System

U. Hansen, W. Hinsen and A. Pavlik

Features & application of forced-circulation evaporators

ME forced-circulation evaporators

Thermodynamic design

Hydraulic design

Brine distribution

Concentration Process for vinasses from distilleries & yeast Production

Rotary Evaporators

B. Tleimat

Historical background of Rotary Evaporators

Analysis of Rotary Evaporators

Specific energy for Rotors

Performance of Rotating Evaporators

Small Desalination Plants

Himangshu K. Sadhukhan and Pradip K. Tewari

Single Effect and Multi-effect Distillation (MED)

Vapor Compression (VC)

Multistage Flash (MSF)

Electrodialysis (ED)

Reverse Osmosis (RO)

Solar Distillation & Solar Energy Driven Plants


Ion Exchange

Solvent Process

Membrane Distillation

Suggestion For Future MSF-Plant Design

R. Rautenbach and S. Schafer

Keydata of recommended future MSF Plants

Plant design aspects.

Operation aspects



Startup, Instrumentation

The Economics and Performance of Desalination Plants

Ali M El-Nashar

Description of the Seawater Desalination Processes

Performance Model Description and Thermo-economic optimization model using the exergy principle

Comparison of the energy consumption of desalination processes

Economics of Desalination Processes

Available desalination economic computer models

Operational and economic parameters used in the sample calculations

Sample desalination plant costing Calculations

Process cost comparison

Seawater Reverse Osmosis (SWRO) Process Costs

Desalination project financing strategies